Thousand Teachings: The Upadesasahasri of Sankara There upadesaashasri no discussion topics on this book yet. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. He [teacher] should also thoroughly impress upon the student qualities like humility, which are the means to knowledge. Most of his works are commentaries on classics of Indian thought. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants.
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Deussen praised his philosophy and compared it with those of Parmenides and Kant. It has also been pointed out that, like Meister Eckhart, he was not so much a philosopher as a theologian. Sankara was indeed a metaphysician or theologian, but, like Gotama Buddha and other great religious teachers, he was primarily concerned with the salvation of people suffering in transmigratory existence here in this present world and not with the establishment of a complete system of philosophy or theology.
Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, As already stated in the Preface there, it is no my purpose to point out yet again the importance of the Upadesasahasri in the history of the Advaita Vedanta , which has been the main current of thought in India for many centuries.
But it is perhaps necessary to describe briefly the character of the Upadesasahasri The Upadesasahasri consists of two parts, one in verse and the other in prose. The verse or Metrical Part Padyabandha comprises nineteen chapters prakarana.
Manuscripts indicate that the two parts were regarded as independent works, as it were, and studied or commented upon separately. They also suggest the possibility that any single chapter could be selected, copied, and studied apart from the rest. This means that reading of the text may begin anywhere. In the Metrical Part, perforce translated here into prose, three kinds of meter are used, but the prevailing one is anustubh, which consists of 8 syllables to a quarter.
Chapters 8, 10 syllables to a quarter. This meter is also used in verse of Chapter 14, verse 54 of Chapter 15, and verses of Chapter The only use of the sragdhara meter, which as 21 syllables to a quarter, is found in verse 81 of Chapter In the Metrical Part, the author discusses and repeatedly explains many basic problems of Advaita or "non-dualism" from different points of view, sometimes in the form of a dialogue.
He first denies the validity of all kinds of action caused by ignorance ajnana. At the same time he asserts that knowledge vidya is the remover of ignorance which is the cause of transmigratory existence samsara. The main topic is the great sentence mahavakya "tat tvam a si" Thous art That , to which the longest chapter, the eighteenth, consisting of verses, is devoted. All these subjects are not systematically expounded.
This vigor of his polemic is easily seen in verse I, 16, 65" "As [their assumptions] contradict the scriptures and reasoning, they should never be respected. Their faults can be pointed out hundreds and thousands of times. He describes the qualifications of a pupil who is to receive an invitation to knowledge, and also the qualifications of a teacher: a pupil should be a seeker after final release mumuksu while a teacher should already be released mukta.
In the Vedanta school there are three stages in the attainment of final release: a hearing sravana , b thinking manana , and c meditation nididhyasana. They appear to correspond to the first, second, and third chapter, respectively, of the Prose Part. In the first chapter the teacher expounds to a pupil the purport of the scriptures using numerous citations to a pupil the purport of the scriptures using numerous citations from both the revealed texts sruti and the traditional texts smrti.
In the second chapter the pupil reflects on the purport of the scriptures over and over again by means of his own reasoning and by discussing with the teacher such fundamental themes as nescience avidya and superimposition adhyaropana.
The third chapter describes the parisamkhyana meditation. The question and answer exchanges between a teacher and his pupil in the Prose Part probably were based upon such interchanges between the author and his disciples.
The Prose Part is a handy guide for teachers, while the metrical Part is, as it were, a textbook for the pupils. Four years have already passed since the publication of my edition of the text, though I had intended to publish the translation without delay. One of the reasons for this delay was the fact that there was nobody who could look over my English, which is not my mother tongue. Fortunately Mr. Without his warmhearted cooperation this translation could not have been completed.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to him. Thanks are also due to Dr. Marie G. Wanek, my former student in Indian philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania, who also helped me improve my English translation.
Publication of this book was aided by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan, and by the annual publication subsidy of the University of Tokyo Press. I am grateful for the support of these organizations. Back Of The Book Sankara, the eighth-century Indian philosopher, is generally regarded as the greatest thinker in the long history of Indian philosophy as well as in the metaphysical tradition known as Vedanta.
Advaita Vedanta, the school or system founded by him, stresses the Advaita or non-dualist approach to the problem of existence and ultimate reality, and has been the main current of thought in India for hundreds of years. The Upadesasahasri, or "A Thousand Teachings," here critically edited and translated into English, is, however, the only independent and non-commentary work that can safely be attributed to him; the other independent writings traditionally ascribed to him are all probably spurious.
The Upadesasahasri consists of two parts, Metrical and Prose. In the Metrical Part, Sankara discusses the basic philosophical problems of Advaita, at the same time refuting the teachings of other philosophical schools. In the Prose Part he explains how to teach the means of final release from transmigratory existence for the benefit of students who are seeking after final release.
The Prose Part is a guide for the teachers, while the Metrical Part is a textbook for the students. Sengaku Mayeda, Ph. D University of Pennsylvania and D. Hajime Nakamura. He edited Japanese Studies in Indian Philosophy Koller xi.
A Thousand Teachings: The Upadesasahasri of Sankara
A THOUSAND TEACHINGS THE UPADESASAHASRI OF SHANKARA PDF