There are many common elements in each country code, but certain important differences. How to represent braille Braille characters are three dimensional tactile bumps on a medium such as paper or board. Nationally different special braille alphabet characters in Europe It must be stressed that punctuation, abbreviated characters and accented characters vary from country to country. In the artwork creation process, the braille character set to be used should be verified as appropriate for the country in which the medicinal product is sold.
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The fifth through ninth used dashes as well as dots, but proved to be impractical and were soon abandoned. The dash occupying the top row of the original sixth decade was simply dropped, producing the modern fifth decade. See braille. Under international consensus, most braille alphabets follow the French sorting order for the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabet , and there have been attempts at unifying the letters beyond these 26 see international braille , though differences remain, for example in German Braille and the contractions of English Braille.
This unification avoids the chaos of each nation reordering the braille code to match the sorting order of its print alphabet, as happened in Algerian Braille , where braille codes were numerically reassigned to match the order of the Arabic alphabet and bear little relation to the values used in other countries compare modern Arabic Braille , which uses the French sorting order , and as happened in an early American version of English Braille, where the letters w, x, y, z were reassigned to match English alphabetical order.
See Hungarian Braille and Bharati Braille , which do this to some extent. A third principle was to assign braille codes according to frequency, with the simplest patterns quickest ones to write with a stylus assigned to the most frequent letters of the alphabet. Academic texts are sometimes written in a script of eight dots per cell rather than six, enabling them to encode a greater number of symbols.
See Gardner—Salinas braille codes. Luxembourgish Braille has adopted eight-dot cells for general use; for example, it adds a dot below each letter to derive its capital variant. Form[ edit ] Silver wedding bands with names Henri que and Tita written in braille Braille was the first writing system with binary encoding.
Within an individual cell, the dot positions are arranged in two columns of three positions. A raised dot can appear in any of the six positions, producing sixty-four 26 possible patterns, including one in which there are no raised dots.
For reference purposes, a pattern is commonly described by listing the positions where dots are raised, the positions being universally numbered, from top to bottom, as 1 to 3 on the left and 4 to 6 on the right. The lines of horizontal Braille text are separated by a space, much like visible printed text, so that the dots of one line can be differentiated from the braille text above and below.
Different assignments of braille codes or code pages are used to map the character sets of different printed scripts to the six-bit cells. Braille assignments have also been created for mathematical and musical notation. However, because the six-dot braille cell allows only 64 26 patterns, including space, the characters of a braille script commonly have multiple values, depending on their context.
That is, character mapping between print and braille is not one-to-one. In addition to simple encoding, many braille alphabets use contractions to reduce the size of braille texts and to increase reading speed. See Contracted braille Writing braille[ edit ] Braille typewriter Braille may be produced by hand using a slate and stylus in which each dot is created from the back of the page, writing in mirror image, or it may be produced on a braille typewriter or Perkins Brailler , or an electronic Brailler or eBrailler.
Interpoint refers to braille printing that is offset, so that the paper can be embossed on both sides, with the dots on one side appearing between the divots that form the dots on the other. Using a computer or other electronic device, Braille may be produced with a braille embosser printer or a refreshable braille display screen.
Braille has been extended to an 8-dot code, particularly for use with braille embossers and refreshable braille displays.
In 8-dot braille the additional dots are added at the bottom of the cell, giving a matrix 4 dots high by 2 dots wide.
The additional dots are given the numbers 7 for the lower-left dot and 8 for the lower-right dot. Eight-dot braille has the advantages that the case of an individual letter is directly coded in the cell containing the letter and that all the printable ASCII characters can be represented in a single cell. All 28 possible combinations of 8 dots are encoded by the Unicode standard. Letters[ edit ] The first 25 braille letters, up through the first half of the 3rd decade, transcribe a—z skipping w.
In English Braille, the rest of that decade is rounded out with the ligatures and, for, of, the, and with. Omitting dot 3 from these forms the 4th decade, the ligatures ch, gh, sh, th, wh, ed, er, ou, ow and the letter w.
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