COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MIND AND BRAIN SMITH & KOSSLYN PDF

This edition is now coauthored by Karin Sternberg, PhD. As you will see, this edition underwent a major revision. What Are the Goals of this Book? Cognitive psychologists study a wide range of psychological phenomena, such as perception, learning, memory, and thinking. In addition, cognitive psychologists study seemingly less cognitively oriented phenomena, such as emotion and motivation.

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Received Jan 30; Accepted Apr The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy CBT.

It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. AGM is a set-theoretical model. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point.

A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another.

In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated.

Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three and only three fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones.

Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. The first is the granular description of neurological systems from a bottom-up, micro level, in order to characterize a cognitive phenotype such as emotion or attention illustrative is Rabinovich et al.

The second is the functional description of psychopathology and corollary intervention strategies from a top-down, macro level, in order to characterize the course and progression of psychiatric disorders illustrative is Bystritsky et al.

Drawing on both, in this review we set forth a theory of belief revision for the intervention strategy known as cognitive behavioral therapy CBT. Persons who are anxious or depressed hold dysfunctional beliefs about themselves, others, their environment and the future. They often are accompanied by dysregulated emotions Linehan, Belief revision is the primary therapeutic technology underlying CBT. As we will explain, it comes in two types.

This in turn reformulates or discards old beliefs and reregulates emotions, reinforcing the newly-learned behavior. In both cases, the new behavior then stabilizes, consolidates and strengthens the new beliefs. Both are forms of belief revision: the former, more cognitively-based than behavioral; and the latter, more behaviorally-based than cognitive. Belief revision also reduces the intensity of interoceptive alarms activated by the sympathetic nervous system when stressed, such as those characteristic of panic Khalsa et al.

Our central premise is that belief revision in CBT is an integral component of a non-linear dynamical process of psychological change as conceptualized, for example, by Bystritsky et al. Anxiety and mood disorders have three essential components, which are alarms, beliefs and coping strategies A-B-C. Alarms can be evaluated using conventional metrics such as their frequency, intensity, duration and onset.

Coping strategies—a form of behavior—can be evaluated by whether they are distressful, maladaptive, or effective in down-regulating the incidence of target behavior and the intensity of correlative alarms. Beliefs are more difficult to integrate into a theory of non-linear dynamical systems. They have several unique characteristics as cognitive phenotypes, which prevent them from fitting well into the canonical model.

One might not even notice one has beliefs to begin with, unless and until they are activated by environmental triggers, interoceptive sensations or undesired behavioral consequences.

Alternatively, we propose and demonstrate a set-theoretical, semantically-based approach to belief revision known as AGM theory, and show how it is the most plausible candidate to perform belief revision within a non-linear, dynamical framework. Some relevant considerations about belief The nature of belief and what it is to believe in something a doxastic state both long have been central pre-occupations of psychology and epistemology Schwitzgebel, It is beyond the scope of this review to discuss exhaustively the voluminous literature on belief, which has accumulated relentlessly since antiquity.

We will, however, briefly develop several characteristics of belief pertinent to its integration into a theory of non-linear dynamical systems, which any theory of belief revision must take into account 1. What beliefs are about is their substantive propositional content, i. Belief is an attitude, orientation or outlook toward that propositional content, i. Beliefs are different than simple reference to people, places or things; informal or colloquial uses Grice, ; as well as other modes of discourse such as performatives Austin, 2.

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How do you address neuroscience in your cognitive psychology classes? Integration of Neuroscientific Data. Uses the most current neuroscientific data and research and incorporates it into the usual behavioral research topics to address psychological issues. This book uses findings in neuroscience to illuminate key distinctions in cognitive psychology.

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