ELECTRONIC TRIVECTOR METER PDF

This method can be used to determine the power consumption of household devices by switching them on one by one. Most domestic electricity meters must be read manually, whether by a representative of the power company or by the customer. Where the customer reads the meter, the reading may be supplied to the power company by telephone , post or over the internet. The electricity company will normally require a visit by a company representative at least annually in order to verify customer-supplied readings and to make a basic safety check of the meter.

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This method can be used to determine the power consumption of household devices by switching them on one by one. Most domestic electricity meters must be read manually, whether by a representative of the power company or by the customer. Where the customer reads the meter, the reading may be supplied to the power company by telephone , post or over the internet. The electricity company will normally require a visit by a company representative at least annually in order to verify customer-supplied readings and to make a basic safety check of the meter.

In an induction type meter, creep is a phenomenon that can adversely affect accuracy, that occurs when the meter disc rotates continuously with potential applied and the load terminals open circuited. A test for error due to creep is called a creep test. Electronic[ edit ] Solid state Danish made electricity meter used in a home in the Netherlands Electronic meters display the energy used on an LCD or LED display, and some can also transmit readings to remote places.

In addition to measuring energy used, electronic meters can also record other parameters of the load and supply such as instantaneous and maximum rate of usage demands, voltages, power factor and reactive power used etc.

They can also support time-of-day billing, for example, recording the amount of energy used during on-peak and off-peak hours.

As in the block diagram[ where? The metering engine is given the voltage and current inputs and has a voltage reference, samplers and quantisers followed by an ADC section to yield the digitised equivalents of all the inputs.

These inputs are then processed using a digital signal processor to calculate the various metering parameters. The largest source of long-term errors in the meter is drift in the preamp, followed by the precision of the voltage reference. Both of these vary with temperature as well, and vary wildly because most meters are outdoors. Characterising and compensating for these is a major part of meter design.

The processing and communication section has the responsibility of calculating the various derived quantities from the digital values generated by the metering engine.

This also has the responsibility of communication using various protocols and interface with other addon modules connected as slaves to it. On a modern meter most if not all of this will be implemented inside the microprocessor, such as the real-time clock RTC , LCD controller, temperature sensor, memory and analogue to digital converters. Communication methods[ edit ] Remote meter reading is a practical example of telemetry.

It saves the cost of a human meter reader and the resulting mistakes, but it also allows more measurements, and remote provisioning.

Many smart meters now include a switch to interrupt or restore service. Historically, rotating meters could report their metered information remotely, using a pair of electrical contacts attached to a KYZ line.

When one contact closes the other contact opens to provide count accuracy security. The frequency of pulses indicates the power demand. The number of pulses indicates energy metered.

When incorporated into an electrical meter, the relay changes state with each rotation or half rotation of the meter disc. Each state change is called a "pulse. KYZ outputs were historically attached to "totaliser relays" feeding a "totaliser" so that many meters could be read all at once in one place. KYZ outputs are also the classic way of attaching electricity meters to programmable logic controllers , HVACs or other control systems.

Some modern meters also supply a contact closure that warns when the meter detects a demand near a higher electricity tariff , to improve demand side management. Some meters have an open collector or IR LED output that give ms pulses for each metered amount of electrical energy, usually pulses per kWh. These outputs usually follow the DIN standard.

Often, meters designed for semi-automated reading have a serial port on that communicates by infrared LED through the faceplate of the meter. In some multi-unit buildings, a similar protocol is used, but in a wired bus using a serial current loop to connect all the meters to a single plug. The plug is often near a more easily accessible point.

Some industrial meters use a protocol for programmable logic controllers Modbus or DNP3. The data can be transmitted by Zigbee , WiFi , telephone lines or over the power lines themselves. Some meters can be read over the internet. The meters can now store the entire usage profiles with time stamps and relay them at a click of a button. The demand readings stored with the profiles accurately indicate the load requirements of the customer. This load profile data is processed at the utilities for billing and planning purposes.

An electronic meter can transmit its readings by telephone line or radio to a central billing office. Automatic meter reading can be done with GSM Global System for Mobile Communications modems, one is attached to each meter and the other is placed at the central utility office.

Monitoring and billing methods[ edit ] Commercial uses[ edit ] Large commercial and industrial premises may use electronic meters which record power usage in blocks of half an hour or less. This is because most electricity grids have demand surges throughout the day, and the power company may wish to give price incentives to large customers to reduce demand at these times. These demand surges often correspond to meal times or, famously, to advertisements interrupting popular television programmes.

Home energy monitoring[ edit ] Main article: Home energy monitor A potentially powerful means to reduce household energy consumption is to provide convenient real-time feedback to users so they can change their energy using behaviour.

Recently, low-cost energy feedback displays have become available. A study using a consumer-readable meter in Ontario homes by Hydro One showed an average 6. Hydro One subsequently offered free power monitors to 30, customers based on the success of the pilot.

Plug-in electricity meters or plug load meters measure energy used by individual appliances. There are a variety of models available on the market today but they all work on the same basic principle.

The meter is plugged into an outlet, and the appliance to be measured is plugged into the meter. Such meters can help in energy conservation by identifying major energy users, or devices that consume excessive standby power. Web resources can also be used, if an estimate of the power consumption is enough for the research purposes. A power meter can often be borrowed from the local power authorities [21] or a local public library. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Electricity retailers may wish to charge customers different tariffs at different times of the day to better reflect the costs of generation and transmission. Since it is typically not cost effective to store significant amounts of electricity during a period of low demand for use during a period of high demand, costs will vary significantly depending on the time of day.

Some multiple tariff meters use different tariffs for different amounts of demand. These are usually industrial meters. Domestic variable-rate meters generally permit two to three tariffs "peak", "off-peak" and "shoulder" and in such installations a simple electromechanical time switch may be used.

Historically, these have often been used in conjunction with electrical storage heaters or hot water storage systems. Multiple tariffs are made easier by time of use TOU meters which incorporate or are connected to a time switch and which have multiple registers. Switching between the tariffs may happen via ripple control , or via a radio-activated switch.

In principle, a sealed time switch can also be used, but is considered more vulnerable to tampering to obtain cheaper electricity. The popularity of such tariffs has declined in recent years, at least in the domestic market, because of the perceived or real deficiencies of storage heaters and the comparatively much lower cost of natural gas per kWh typically a factor of times lower. Nevertheless, a sizeable number of properties do not have the option of gas, with many in rural areas being outside the gas supply network, and others being expensive upfront to upgrade to a radiator system.

An Economy 10 meter is also available, which gives 10 hours of cheap off-peak electricity spread out over three timeslots throughout a hour period. This allows multiple top-up boosts to storage heaters, or a good spread of times to run a wet electric heating system on a cheaper electricity rate. The downside of this is that the daytime rate per kWh is significantly higher, and that standing charges are sometimes higher. For example, as of July , normal "single rate" electricity costs They offer additional functionality including a real-time or near real-time reads, power outage notification, and power quality monitoring.

They allow price setting agencies to introduce different prices for consumption based on the time of day and the season. Another type of smart meter uses nonintrusive load monitoring to automatically determine the number and type of appliances in a residence, how much energy each uses and when. This meter is used by electric utilities to do surveys of energy use. It eliminates the need to put timers on all of the appliances in a house to determine how much energy each uses.

Prepayment meters[ edit ] Prepayment meter and magnetic stripe tokens, from a rented accommodation in the UK. The button labelled A displays information and statistics such as current tariff and remaining credit. The button labelled B activates a small amount of emergency credit should the customer run out A prepayment key The standard business model of electricity retailing involves the electricity company billing the customer for the amount of energy used in the previous month or quarter.

In some countries, if the retailer believes that the customer may not pay the bill, a prepayment meter may be installed. This requires the customer to make advance payment before electricity can be used. In the UK, mechanical prepayment meters used to be common in rented accommodation. Disadvantages of these included the need for regular visits to remove cash , and risk of theft of the cash in the meter.

Modern solid-state electricity meters, in conjunction with smart cards , have removed these disadvantages and such meters are commonly used for customers considered to be a poor credit risk. In the UK, customers can use organisations such as the Post Office Ltd or PayPoint network, where rechargeable tokens Quantum cards for natural gas, or plastic "keys" for electricity can be loaded with whatever money the customer has available.

In South Africa , Sudan and Northern Ireland prepaid meters are recharged by entering a unique, encoded twenty digit number using a keypad. This makes the tokens, essentially a slip of paper, very cheap to produce. Around the world, experiments are going on, especially in developing countries, to test pre-payment systems. In some cases, prepayment meters have not been accepted by customers. There are various groups, such as the Standard Transfer Specification STS association, which promote common standards for prepayment metering systems across manufacturers.

Prepaid meters using the STS standard are used in many countries. This also allows the utilities to plan their transmission infrastructure appropriately.

TOD metering normally splits rates into an arrangement of multiple segments including on-peak, off-peak, mid-peak or shoulder, and critical peak. A typical arrangement is a peak occurring during the day non-holiday days only , such as from 1 pm to 9 pm Monday through Friday during the summer and from am to 12 noon and 5 pm to 9 pm during the winter.

More complex arrangements include the use of critical peaks that occur during high demand periods. Large commercial users can purchase power by the hour using either forecast pricing or real-time pricing. Some utilities allow residential customers to pay hourly rates, such as in Illinois, which uses day ahead pricing.

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The meter has advanced data and tamper recording capabilities and How can the power consumption for computing be reduced for energy harvesting? Acrux Electronic Trivector Meter In order to provide the total satisfaction t Input port and input output port declaration in top module 2. As a renowned firm, we are engaged in offering a wide variety of LT Trivector Meters to meet the demands of our valued customers. Skip Looking for Trivector Meter?

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Voltages of all the phases Currents of all the phases Power factor of all the phases Principle of Operation: The principle of operation of trivector energy meter is explained with the help of block diagram. It mainly consists of the following units. Energy measuring unit: voltage sampling, current sampling, measuring integrated circuit An analogue to digital converter is used to sample voltage and current relative to incoming waveform. For getting accurate results the sampling rate should be high. Major Components of Trivector Meter: 1. Maximum Demand Registers: Maximum Demand is indicated for a particular time period.

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