Vishnuvaravidyadhar, M. Skin acts a barrier for transdermal through drug delivery system. Drug across through stratum corneum by low diffusion process. Drug formulation with elastic vesicle or skin enhances vesicles. Etho sources are the ethanolic phospholipids vesicles and which are having higher rate of penetration through the skin.
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E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The main disadvantage of transdermal drug delivery is the poor penetration of most compounds into the human skin. The main barrier of the skin is located within its uppermost layer, the stratum corneum SC. Several approaches have been developed to weaken this skin barrier.
One of the approaches for increasing the skin penetration of drugs and many cosmetic chemicals is the use of vesicular systems, such as, liposomes and ethosomes. Ethanol is known as an efficient permeation enhancer and has been added in the vesicular systems to prepare elastic nanovesicles.
It can interact with the polar head group region of the lipid molecules, resulting in the reduction of the melting point of the stratum corneum lipid, thereby increasing lipid fluidity and cell membrane permeability. The high flexibility of vesicular membranes from the added ethanol permits the elastic vesicles to squeeze themselves through the pores, which are much smaller than their diameters.
Ethosomal systems are much more efficient in delivering substances to the skin in the terms of quantity and depth, than either conventional liposomes or hydroalcoholic solutions. The scope of this small review is to introduce the novel concept of ethosomes and to describe some approaches and mechanisms of stimulating topical and transdermal products with ethosomes.
Keywords: Ethosomes, liposomes, novel drug delivery, penetration enhancer, Percutaneous absorption INTRODUCTION Human skin is an effective, selective barrier to chemical permeation, although the skin as a route for delivery can offer many advantages, including avoidance of first-pass metabolism, lower fluctuations in plasma drug levels, targeting of the active ingredient for a local effect, and good patient compliance.
The stratum corneum is composed of insoluble bundled keratins surrounded by a cell envelope, stabilized by cross-linked proteins and covalently bound lipids as shown in Figure 1.
A REVIEW ON TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ETHOSOMES
Therapeutic and cosmeceutical potential of ethosomes: An overview