Further information: Pandyan art and architecture After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras, The empire ruled AD 6th — 10th centuriy. Rock cut and structural temples are significant part of pandyan architecture. The Vimana and mandapa are some of the features of the early Pandyan temples. The Shiva temples have a Nandi bull sculpture in front of the maha mandapa. Gopurams are the rectangular entrance and portals of the temples. Nellaiappar Temple, Pandyan architecture, 7th century CE Nellaiappar Temple[ edit ] Nellaiappar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Tirunelveli, built by Pandyas and the sanctums of the temple were constructed by Nindraseer Nedumaran who reigned in the 7th century.
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Further information: Pandyan art and architecture After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras, The empire ruled AD 6th — 10th centuriy.
Rock cut and structural temples are significant part of pandyan architecture. The Vimana and mandapa are some of the features of the early Pandyan temples. The Shiva temples have a Nandi bull sculpture in front of the maha mandapa. Gopurams are the rectangular entrance and portals of the temples. Nellaiappar Temple, Pandyan architecture, 7th century CE Nellaiappar Temple[ edit ] Nellaiappar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Tirunelveli, built by Pandyas and the sanctums of the temple were constructed by Nindraseer Nedumaran who reigned in the 7th century.
The mani mandapam with its famous musical pillar was built by Later Pandyas in the 7th century. Nellaiappar temple is spread over 14 acres.
The gopuram of this temple is feet long and feet wide. The rock-cut temples, sculptures and the carvings are exemplary of early Pandyan architecture.
Constructed in rock cut style, the unfinished temple was built during the reign of Pandyan king Parantaka Nedunjadaiya CE. There are approximately niches in the bed, that includes images of Gomateshwara , Parshvanatha and other Tirthankaras of the Jainism. The sculptures and the carvings are indicative of Pandyan art during the period. The vimana ceiling over the sanctum has niches of Parsavadevatas, the attendant deities of Shiva, like ganas, Dakshinamurthy depicted playing a mridanga , Siva with his consort Uma , dancers, various niches of Nandi the sacred bull of Shiva and animals like monkeys and lions.
Historian Sivaramamurti believes that this is the only place where Vettuvan Koil in Kalugumalai , Pandyan architecture, 8th century CE Dakshinamurthy is depicted playing the Mridanga a percussion instrument , while in all other places, he is depicted playing Veena.
Epigrapher like V. Vedachalam believes that there is a spontaneity in the sculptures indicating of natural human movements like in Sculpture on the ceiling of the Kalugasalamoorthy temple , Pandyan architecture, 8th century CE the Shiva and Uma sculpture where they seem to be talking like common folks. The sanctum of the Kalugasalamoorthy temple is approached through a pillared hall near the gateway.
The temple tank is located outside the temple. The sanctum is built in a rock-cut cave, which houses the image of Murugan in the form of Kazhugachalamurthi in seated posture. The image is sported with six hands with one of them holding Vel divine spear , his left leg over the shoulder of the peacock and right is left hanging.
There are separate shrines of his consorts Valli facing South and Deivanai facing North. There is a separate shrine for Shiva and Parvathi and all the Parsvatah Devatas attendant deities associated with Shiva temples. Usually in Murugan temples, his vehicle peacock would be heading towards his right, but it is sported on to the left of Murugan in this temple.
It is believed that Indra , the king of celestial deities, appeared as peacock to worship Murugan. The image of the peacock is hence covered during the festivals. The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first king Vijayalaya Chola after whom the eclectic chain of Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple near Narttamalai exists. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions.
Rajendra Chola 1 built the Rajaraja Temple at Thanjur after his own name. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. He also proclaimed himself as Gangaikonda. In a small portion of the Kaveri belt between Tiruchy-Tanjore-Kumbakonam, at the height of their power, the Cholas have left over temples, with the Tiruchy-Thanjavur belt itself boasting of more than temples.
The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur built by Raja Raja I in as well as the Brihadisvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram , completed around , are both fitting memorials to the material and military achievements of the time of the two Chola emperors.
The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, the Tanjore Brihadisvara is at the apex of South Indian architecture. All the four temples were built over a period of nearly years reflecting the glory, prosperity and stability under the Chola emperors. Contrary to popular impression, the Chola emperors patronized and promoted construction of a large number of temples that were spread over most parts of the Chola empire.
The temple of Gangaikondacholapuram , the creation of Rajendra Chola I , was intended to exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around , only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra. The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world.
Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi , and the Siva saints.
Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.
It had a deep wet ditch moat where once 10, crocodiles swarmed, waiting to grab every intruder into this impregnable fort. It has huge double walls with bastions projecting irregularly, where two carts can be driven abreast".
It spreads over an area of acres 0. The fort is surrounded by a moat which was once used as an additional line of defence in the case of an invasion. This report was however later disputed by researchers of the ASI who found no evidence of the existence of such a passage. The fort is considered to be among the best of military architecture in Southern India and is known for its grand ramparts, wide moat and robust masonry. The temple has exquisite carvings on its gopuram tower , richly carved stone pillars, large wooden gates and stunning monoliths and sculptures.
The temple also has a Mandapam , with the hall supported by carved stone pillars of dragons, horses and yalis lion like creature. The main temples representing this style are: The Ranganatha temple at Srirangam — noted for its increase in the number of enclosures; The temple at Rameswaram — noted for its long corridors; The Subramanya temple at the Brihadisvara Temple court at Tanjavur — noted for its fine vimana with ratha and maha mandapas; Meenakshi Temple at Madurai — noted for the great splendour its "thousand-pillared" mandapam, and the Thanga Thamarai kulam "Golden Lotus water pool".
After the fall of the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, it served as the official residence of the Thanjavur Maratha.
The Royal Palace Museum contains a splendid collection of Chola bronzes. There is also a small bell tower. The Saraswathi Mahal Library is situated with the Thanjavur palace complex. It was built in the 16th century by Portuguese explorers, and rebuilt again with the status of a cathedral by the British in
The Palladian style of architecture is based on the works of Andrea Palladio 17th century of Italy. It could be identified with a few features such as the ceilings as an ornamental focus, mouldings often featuring masks, terms and shells or other depictions of nature, fireplaces and wall painting. A great central tower rising from a succession of traced roofs is one important characteristic of this style. The another important feature is Palladian window, which consists of a central section with semicircular arch over and two sections on either sides, all supported by pillars, as shown in the adjacent image. Martin acquired his fortune while serving Asaf-ud-Daula, the nawab wazir of Awadh, and was reputedly the richest Frenchman in India. The building, called Constantia at that time is now serves as a college. At the same time, the Victorian style was also in vogue.
Contacts Indo-saracenic architecture represents a synthesis of Muslim designs and Indian materials developed by British architects in India during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The hybrid combined diverse architectural elements of Hindu and Mughal with Gothic cusped arches, domes, spires, tracery, minarets and stained glass, in a wonderful, almost playful manner. Robert Fellowes Chisholm - , Henry Irwin and Gilbert Scott were among the leading practitioners of the time. Chisholm, one of the most gifted English architects working in India and a vehement supporter of Indian craftsmen, "the men who will actually leave the impress of their hands on the material. These men have an art language of their own, a language which you can recognise but cannot thoroughly understand. For this reason an architect practising in India should unhesitatingly select to practice in the native styles of art - indeed the natural art-expression of the men is the only art to be obtained in the country.
Architecture of Tamil Nadu
Early 20th-century. Structures built in Indo-Saracenic style in India and in certain nearby countries were predominantly grand public edifices, such as clock towers and courthouses. Additionally, more often seen are the diminutive renditions of the Indo-Saracenic style, built originally for lesser budgets, finding their nonetheless romantic expression in the occasional and serenely beautiful garden pavilion outbuildings, throughout the world, especially, in India and England. Main articles: Indo-Islamic architecture and British architecture Confluence of different architectural styles had been attempted before during the mainly Turkic , Delhi Sultanate and Mughal periods. Turkic and Mughal incursions in the Indian subcontinent, introduced new concepts in the much more advanced high architecture of India. The prevailing style of architecture was trabeate , employing pillars, beams and lintels , with less emphasis on arches and domes used during earlier Buddhist periods. Motifs such as chhajja A sunshade or eave laid on cantilever brackets fixed into and projecting from the walls , corbel brackets with richly carved pendentive decorations described as stalactite pendentives , balconies, kiosks or chhatris and minars tall towers were characteristic of the Indian imitated Mughal architecture style, which was to become a lasting legacy of the nearly four hundred years of the Mughal presence in these areas.