The Tanya deals with Jewish spirituality , psychology and theology from the point of view of Hasidic philosophy and its inner explanations of Kabbalah Jewish mysticism. It offers advice for each individual on how to serve God in their daily life. Early Hasidic movement[ edit ] The first few generations of the Hasidic movement established the various approaches of its different schools. Among them, Schneur Zalman articulated a different approach to Hasidic Philosophy from general Hasidism. The founding Hasidic mysticism of the Baal Shem Tov , and subsequent Hasidic Masters, emphasised the emotions of dveikus to cleave to the Omnipresent Divine. The intellectual "Chabad" approach of Schneur Zalman, continued by successive Lubavitch Rebbes , emphasised the mind as the route to the inner heart.
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The Tanya deals with Jewish spirituality , psychology and theology from the point of view of Hasidic philosophy and its inner explanations of Kabbalah Jewish mysticism. It offers advice for each individual on how to serve God in their daily life. Early Hasidic movement[ edit ] The first few generations of the Hasidic movement established the various approaches of its different schools.
Among them, Schneur Zalman articulated a different approach to Hasidic Philosophy from general Hasidism. The founding Hasidic mysticism of the Baal Shem Tov , and subsequent Hasidic Masters, emphasised the emotions of dveikus to cleave to the Omnipresent Divine. The intellectual "Chabad" approach of Schneur Zalman, continued by successive Lubavitch Rebbes , emphasised the mind as the route to the inner heart.
The Chabad school requires knowledge of Godliness, drawn from Hasidic Philosophy, to establish Hasidic mystical faith. This enabled Schneur Zalman to take Hasidus to Lithuanian Jews from nearby White Russia , and aroused the opposition of their early leaders. In this, Chabad is a separate offshoot of general Hasidism, and to its students is the profound fulfillment of systematically articulating its inner depths.
Therefore, in Chabad, the Baal Shem Tov and Schneur Zalman, who share the same birthday, are called the "two great luminaries" after Genesis , according to the Midrashic account, before the moon was diminished , representing heart and mind.
Kabbalah and Hasidism[ edit ] The historical development of Kabbalah , from the 12th century, and its new formulations in the 16th century, explained the subtle aspects and categories of the traditional system of Jewish metaphysics. Hasidic spirituality left aside the abstract focus of Kabbalah on the Spiritual Realms, to look at its inner meaning and soul as it relates to man in this World. This enabled the popularisation of Kabbalah by relating it to the natural psychological perception and emotional dveikus fervour of man.
The mystical dimension of Judaism became accessible and tangible to the whole community. Outwardly this was expressed in new veneration of sincerity, emphasis on prayer and deeds of loving-kindness.
The unlettered Jewish folk were cherished and encouraged in their sincere simplicity, while the elite scholars sought to emulate their negation of ego through study of Hasidic exegetical thought.
Hagiographic storytelling about Hasidic Masters captured the mystical charisma of the tzaddik. The inner dimension of this mystical revival of Judaism was expressed by the profound new depth of interpretation of Jewish mysticism in Hasidic philosophy.
Great scholars also followed the Baal Shem Tov as they saw the profound meanings of his new teachings. Chabad[ edit ] Mind versus heart. This seeks inward Jewish observance, while downplaying charismatic Hasidic enthusiasm, that it sees as external.
The mysticism of Schneur Zalman did not seek cold intellectual investigation. But in Chabad, later to be called after its Russian village of Lubavitch, external emotional expression is seen as superficial if devoid of inner contemplation.
In this vein, it is related that the second Lubavitch Rebbe, Dov Ber Schneuri , would pray motionless for hours. Emotional expression was replaced with inner, hidden emotional ecstasy from his intellectual contemplation of Hasidic Philosophy during prayer. At the end of praying, his hat and clothing would be soaked in perspiration.
Typically, he wrote one of the most personal mystical accounts in Judaism, his "Tract on Ecstasy", that instructs the Chabad follower in the levels of contemplation.
While the Baal Shem Tov stressed the heart, Schneur Zalman stressed the mind, but it was a warm, fiery mystical intellectualism. Intellect versus faith. By giving Hasidus philosophical investigation, the Chabad school explained the inner meanings of the "Torah of the Baal Shem Tov". Its systematic investigation enables the mind to grasp and internalize the transcendent spirituality of mainstream Hasidism.
If the mind can bring the soul of Hasidism into understanding and knowledge through logic, then its effects on the person can be more inward. The classic writings of other Hasidic schools also relate the inner mysticism of Hasidic Philosophy to the perception of each person. The aim of the Hasidic movement is to offer the Jewish mystical tradition in a new, internal form that speaks to every person. This would awaken spiritual awareness and feeling of God, through understanding of its mystical thought.
Mainstream Hasidism relates this mystical revival through charismatic leadership and understanding based faith. The path of Schneur Zalman differs from other Hasidism, as it seeks to approach the heart through the development of the mind. Chabad writings of each generation of its dynasty, develop this intellectual explanation of Hasidic mystical ideas, into successively greater and more accessible reach.
In recent times the last two Rebbes expressed the spiritual warmth of Chabad in terms of daily reality, language and relevance, in the Yiddish translations and memoires of Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn , and especially the Likkutei Sichos of Menachem Mendel Schneerson. Chabad Hasidus and other dimensions of Jewish thought. Because the approach of Chabad explains Hasidus in intellectual form, it can incorporate into its explanation the other aspects of historical Jewish thought.
Complimentary or initially contradictory explanations of Jewish thought from Rabbinic Judaism , Jewish philosophy and Kabbalah can become synthesised into one unity. It can connect the different disciplines of mysticism Kabbalah and Jewish philosophy Hakira , by relating to a higher, essential unity in Divinity, that harmonises diverse ideas.
This approaches classic questions of theology from a different route than Hakira. Hasidic thought looks to the inner meaning of Kabbalah, a conceptual system of metaphysics from mystical encounters with revelation.
The insights it brings to theological questions, brought out in its Chabad explanation, are related from a mystical, higher reality "from above". When Hasidic thought addresses traditional questions, such as Divine Providence , immanence and transcendence , it offers "Inner Torah" explanations of spirituality, that can also be harmonised with the explanations of the "Revealed Torah".
Later editions incorporated additional writings by Shneur Zalman. The latest version of this work, dating from ,[ citation needed ] consists of five parts: Sefer shel Beinonim "The Book of the Average Men". This book is a Hasidic guide to the psychological drama of daily Jewish spiritual life. This approach is the fundamental theme of Chabad teaching: to achieve emotional refinement during prayer and Jewish observance. However, in the path offered, this emotion must stem from intellectual understanding of Hasidic mysticism.
The Divine soul is a true "part of God", a historic emphasis in Jewish thought, though based on earlier sources. The Panentheism all creation takes place "within God" taught by the Baal Shem Tov is systematically articulated in Kabbalistic philosophy. God is all, but all is not God. In the "Lower Unity" all Creation is nullified to God. In the "Higher Unity", Creation is an acosmic illusion as only God truly exists. The apparent plurality in Creation is only an effect of the concealments of Divinity.
The origin of everything is nullification within the Divine Unity. Iggeret HaTeshuvah "Letter of Repentance". This section is also known as the "Tanya Katan" "Brief Tanya" as it is the gateway to all personal spiritual redemption. It describes the mystical return that not only leads to forgiveness for the sins but can fully enable the repenting person to be elevated to a spiritual place that is higher than where they were before the sin.
In Hasidism any spiritual descent is only a preparation for a higher ascent. Two levels of Teshuvah are described, based on their meanings in Kabbalah. The "Lower Teshuvah" redeems sin. The "Higher Teshuvah" brings constant elevation unconnected to sin. Because of this, the founder of Hasidism taught that even saintly tzadikim are able to be inspired to do Teshuvah. Iggeret HaKodesh "Letter of Holiness". It is a collection of letters which the author wrote to his disciples and different Hasidic communities, in which he talked about mystical aspects of certain commandments, such as charity, Torah study, or in general all commandments concerned with physical deed.
Today it is used as a source of certain in-depth concepts of the "Written Hasidism" not concerned specifically with emotion felt during service or repentance. It is a more esoteric and detailed work of Kabbalistic commentary than the previous sections. Schematically it would relate to a person who had internalised the fundamental first three sections, and could progress higher. Kuntres Acharon "Last Thesis".
It is also a series of letters in which the author resolved certain seeming controversies in Kabbalah. This section is an even more in-depth investigation of profound mystical notions than the previous one. Like the fourth section, it can be seen as an addition to the first three fundamental sections. The last two added sections give more complicated and in-depth Hasidic exposition of Kabbalistic concepts, the author uniting abstract ideas with the importance of everyday service and an emotion that must accompany it.
These discourses are similar to the exegetical commentaries of Schneur Zalman in his other works, though here they sometimes take the form of letters to his followers, with more direct advice.
Lubavitcher Hasidim are enjoined to study from this work each day as part of Chitas - an acronym for Chumash , Tehillim and Tanya. The Rebbes of Chabad taught that it is a sacred duty to publish and distribute this book as widely as possible. The Tanya seeks to demonstrate to the "average" Jewish man or woman that knowledge of God is there for the taking, that spiritual growth to ever higher levels is real and imminent, if one is willing to engage in the struggle.
Levels of divine service[ edit ] The Tanya describes five levels: The complete tzaddik "righteous person" has transformed his animal soul completely, to the point that it is able to reach intense Godly delight in its connection to Godliness, and is disgusted by all worldly pleasures.
Various writers have asserted that this idea has the potential to either develop into or to provide support for racism,  or that it endorses a kind of "metaphysical racism",  or that it is "a dangerous and indeed racist idea and contrary to normative Jewish belief.
Among Medieval Jewish philosophy , Yehudah Halevi follows a proto-kabbalistic approach that distinguishes Jewish and Gentile souls, while Maimonides describes a universalist rationalist approach. Kabbalistic mysticism follows Halevi, developed in Hasidism.
However, non-literalist, universalist readings have been found among Kabbalists and Hasidim. In normative Chabad, righteous Gentiles have souls similar in Divine receptivity to Jewish souls, while Jews can be distanced from Divine consciousness.
Consequently, the Tanya has been read as describing two universal levels of psychological consciousness. Such a person is trained by his predecessors in correct application of the Tanya.
LIKUTEI AMARIM TANIA PDF
Meztiktilar The tqnia in the Tanya of soul differences follows on from a particularist- universalist debate in Judaism concerning the meaning of Jews as a chosen people. The founding Hasidic mysticism of the Baal Shem Tovand subsequent Hasidic Masters, emphasised the emotions of dveikus to cleave to the Omnipresent Divine. Pages with Bible version errors Webarchive template wayback links Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles containing Hebrew-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements tanai April Articles with unsourced statements from July Alan added it Aug 26, As one of the founding figures of Hasidic mysticism, Schneur Zalman and his approach in the Tanya are venerated by other Hasidic schools, although they tend to avoid its meditative methods. Likutei Amarim-Tanya It is composed of five sections that define Hasidic mystical psychology and theology as a handbook for daily spiritual life in Jewish observance.
El Tania del Día Likutei Amarim, Capítulo 28